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Professor Garland collaborated with Neil Chakraborti (2014 – ESRC REF) on the largest study of hate crime victimisation so far undertaken. The two-year project engaged with over 4000 people from a range of backgrounds and captured the experiences of over 1,400 victims of hate crime. The project investigated the experiences of those who are victimised because of their identity, vulnerability or perceived ‘difference’'.  This included the more ‘recognised’ hate crime victim communities (e.g. racist, religiously motivated, homophobic etc), as well as anyone who felt they had been targeted because of who they are. One of Professor Garland’s specific contributions to the project was to show that hate crime affects recognised and not-recognised groups in a similar way. However, the non-recognised groups do not have the same protection by law.

Professor Garland’s research also identified that the majority of hate crimes are linked to attacks against any kind of ‘difference’, i.e. they have a common core.  Further funding was then received to explore whether hate crime can or should be extended beyond the then recognized minority groups.. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 21 respondents mostly affiliated to the Goth scene, this research uncovered extensive experience of verbal harassment and, for some respondents, repeated incidents of targeted violence (see Hodkinson and Garland 2016; Garland and Hodkinson 2014). This research also provided a definition of ‘alternative subculture’ hate crime. 


Featured Publications

Key findings from this work can be found in:

Publications list…


Funded Research Projects

list