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recent Highlights

  • Joliffe, D., Farrington, D.P., Brunton-Smith, I., Loeber, R., Ahonen, L., and Paula Palacios, A. (forthcoming) ‘Depression, Anxiety and Delinquency: Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study’. Journal of Criminal Justice.

This recently accepted paper uses data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study to show that offending is linked to later increases in anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression, but that depression and anxiety do not cause offending. This paper makes use of a random effects design to examine within and between person correlations simultaneously, which is a neat extension of the earlier work of Farrington et al., (2002) where these correlations were calculated separately. 


In this paper we shift the focus of research on collective efficacy away from variations in average levels of collective efficacy between neighbourhoods to also consider how much people agree about these judgments. To do this, we extend a basic multilevel model to also include a neighbourhood-level random effect associated with the individual residual (see e.g. Hedeker et al, 2008). Our results show that neighbourhoods in London differ, not just in their average levels of collective efficacy but also in the extent to which residents agree with one another in their assessments. And this variation matters, with higher levels of criminal victimization, worry about crime, and risk avoidance behaviour in areas where collective efficacy consensus is low.

All models were estimated in a new bayesian software package - Stat-Jr - which is lightning fast. You can find the model template here


Joliffe, D., Farrington, D.P., Brunton-Smith, I., Loeber, R., Ahonen, L., and Paula Palacios, A. (forthcoming) ‘Depression, Anxiety and Delinquency: Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study’. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Quick, M., Li, G., and Brunton-Smith, I. (forthcoming) ‘Identifying shared crime patterns and hotspots: A Bayesian multivariate spatial analysis of four crime types at the small-area scale’. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Brunton-Smith, I. (2018) ‘Chapter 31 – Systematic Social Observation’ in Johnson, S., and Bruinsma, G. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Criminology, Oxford University Press.

Brunton-Smith, I. (2018Fear 2.0: Worry about cybercrime in England and Wales’ in Lee, M., and Mythen. G. (eds) International handbook of fear of crime.Routledge. Oxon.

Brunton-Smith, I., and Bullock, K. (2018) ‘Participation in Neighborhood Watch in England and Wales’.British Journal of Criminology

Brunton-Smith, I., Sturgis, P., and Leckie, G. (2018) ‘How collective is collective efficacy? The importance of consensus in judgments about community cohesion and willingness to intervene’. Criminology, 56(3): 608-631.

Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Brunton-Smith, I., and Gray, E. (2018‘In the eye of the (motivated) beholder: Towards a motivated cognition perspective on disorder perceptions’ in Lee, M., and Mythen. G. (eds)International handbook of fear of crime.Routledge. Oxon.

McCarthy, D., and Brunton-Smith, I. (online first) ‘The effect of penal legitimacy on prisoners’ post-release desistance’. Crime and Delinquency

McCarthy, D, J and Adams, M (2018) ‘Can family relationships improve during incarceration? British Journal of Criminology, in press

Skudder, H., Brunton-Smith, I., Druckman, A., Cole, J., and McInnes, A. (2018) ‘The falling carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent offences’. British Journal of Criminology, 58(2): 351-371.

Skudder, H., Brunton-Smith, I., Tseloni, A., McInnes, A., Cole, J., Thompson, R., and Druckman, A. (2018) ‘Can burglary prevention be low-carbon and effective? Investigating the environmental performance of burglary prevention measures’ Security Journal, 31: 111-138.


Brunton-Smith, I., and McCarthy, D. (2017) ‘The effects of prisoner attachment to family on re-entry outcomes: A longitudinal assessment’. British Journal of Criminology.57(2): 463-482.

Brunton-Smith, I., and Tarling, R. (2017) ‘Harnessing paradata and multilevel multiple imputation when analysing longitudinal survey data’. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(6): 709-720.

McCarthy, D., and Brunton-Smith, I. (2017) ‘Prisoner-family ties during imprisonment: Reassessing resettlement outcomes’. Prison Service Journal, 233: 23-27.

McCarthy, D., & Adams, M. (2017). Prison visitation as human ‘right’or earned ‘privilege’? The differing tales of England/Wales, and Scotland. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 39(4), 403-416.

McCarthy, D, J & Adams, M (2017) Yes, I can still parent.  Until I die, he will always be my son”: Parental responsibility in the wake of child incarceration, Punishment and Society, online first    

Sindall, K., McCarthy, D., and Brunton-Smith, I. (2017) ‘Young people and the formation of attitudes towards the police’ European Journal of Criminology. 14(3): 344-364.

Skudder, H., Druckman, A., Cole, J., Ansaloni, G. P., Brunton-Smith, I., and McInnes, A. (2017) ‘Addressing the carbon-crime blind spot: A carbon footprint approach’. Journal of Industrial Ecology.21(4): 797-1041.


Brunton-Smith, I., and McCarthy, D. (2016) ‘The social characteristics of online piracy offenders and their offending pathways’. Victims and Offenders.11(4): 509-533.

Brunton-Smith, I., and McCarthy, D. (2016) ‘Prison legitimacy and procedural fairness: the view from prisoners across England and Wales’. Justice Quarterly. 33(6): 1029-1054.

Davies, M., Brunton-Smith, I., Pina-Sanchez, J., and Sutherland, A. (2016) ‘Evaluation of sentencing council guidelines: Drug offences final report’. Rand Europe: Report for Office of the Sentencing Council. 

McCarthy, D, J (2016) Dangerous Dogs, Dangerous Owners and the Waste Management of an ‘Irredeemable’ Species, Sociology, 50 (3), 560-575

Sutherland, A. Davies, M., Brunton-Smith, I. Herrea, F. (2016) Evaluation of Sentencing Council Guidelines: Additional drugs report. London: Office of the Sentencing Council.


Brunton-Smith, I., Sutherland, A., and Jackson, J. (2014) ‘Bridging structure and perception; On the social ecology of beliefs and worries about neighbourhood violence in London’ British Journal of Criminology. 54(4): 503-526.

Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., and Sutherland, A. (2014) ‘The Role of Neighbourhoods in Shaping Crime and Perceptions of Crime’ in van Ham, M., and Manley, D. (eds) Neighbourhood Effects or Neighbourhood based Problems? A Policy Context. Springer.

Brunton-Smith, I., and Hopkins, K. (2014) ‘The impact of experience in prison on the employment status of prisoners after release: Findings from the first 3 waves of Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)’. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice

Brunton-Smith, I., Carpenter, J., Kenward, M., and Tarling, R. (2014) ‘Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) Using multiple imputation to recover missing data from the SPCR’. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice

Bullock, K.(Online first) 'Diversity in the Special Constabulary'Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. 

Bullock, K., and Leeny, D. (Online first) 'On matters of balance: An examination of the deployment, motivation and management of the Special Constabulary'Policing and Society.

Bullock, K. (2014) Citizens, Community and Crime Control. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bullock, K. (2014) 'Criminal benefit, the confiscation order and the post-conviction confiscation regime'Crime, Law and Social Change: 62(1): 45-64

Bullock, K. and Sindall, K. (2014) 'The Nature and Extent of Citizen Participation in Neighbourhood Policing'Policing and Society: 24(4): 385-404

Bullock, K. (2014) 'Integrated Approaches to Domestic violence? An Exploration of the Role of the Victim and Women’s Safety Work in Cognitive-Behavioural Programmes'The Probation Journal,61(1): 27-43

Bullock, K., and Lister, S. (2014) Post-conviction Confiscation of Assets in England and Wales: Rhetoric and Reality, in C. King and C. Walker (eds). Dirty Assets: Emerging Issues in the Regulation of Criminal and Terrorist Assets. London: Ashgate.

Garland J., and Chakraborti N. (2014) Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research. Bristol: Policy Press.

Garland J., and Hodkinson P. (2014) '“F**king Freak! What the hell do you think you look like?” Experiences of Targeted Victimisation Among Goths and Developing Notions of Hate Crime'The British Journal of Criminology, 54(4): 613-631.

Garland J.,and Hodkinson P. (2014) 'Alternative Subcultures and Hate Crime'. in Hall N, Corb A., Grieve J., and Giannasi P (eds.) The International Handbook of Hate Crime. London: Routledge. pp. 226-236.

Garland J., and Rowe M. (2014) 'The Hollow Victory of Antiracism in English Football'. in Treadwell J., and Hopkins M (eds.) Football Hooliganism, Fan Behaviour and Crime, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 92-105.

Hopkins, K., and Brunton-Smith, I. (2014) ‘Prisoners’ experience of prison and outcomes on release: Results from Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)'. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice

McCarthy, D, J. (2014) 'Soft' Policing: The Collaborative Control of Anti-Social Behaviour, Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan

McCarthy, D, J., and O’Neill, M. (2014) 'The Police and Partnership Working: Reflection on Recent Research'Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice,

McCarthy, D, J. (2014) 'Revisiting Revolutions in Youth Justice'Criminal Justice Matters, 97(1): 16-17.

McGuire, M. (2014) 'Putting the 'Cyber' into Cyber-terrorism: Re-reading Technological Risk in a Hyperconnected World' in Cyberterrorism: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer. 

O’Neill, M., and McCarthy, D, J. (2014) ‘(Re)Negotiating Police Culture through Partnership Working: Trust, Compromise and the ‘New’ Pragmatism’Criminology and Criminal Justice, 14(2): 143-159.

Sturgis, P., Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., and Kuha, J. (2014) ‘Ethnic diversity and the social cohesion of neighbourhoods in London’ Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(8): 1286-1309.


Brunton-Smith, I., and Hopkins, K. (2013) ‘The factors associated with reconviction following release from prison: Findings from the first 3 waves of Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR)'. Ministry of Justice Analytical Series. London: Ministry of Justice

Bullock, K., and Condry, R. (2013) Responding to Denial, Minimization and Blame in Correctional Settings: The "Real World' Implications of Offender Neutralizations, European Journal of Criminology. 10(5): 572-590.

Bullock, K. (2013) Community, Intelligence-led Policing and Crime ControlPolicing and Society. 23(2): 125-144.

Bullock, K., and Leeney, D. (2013) Participation, ‘Responsivity’ and Accountability in Neighbourhood PolicingCriminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 199-214.

Bullock, K. (2013) Intelligence Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model, in J. Brown (ed). The Future of Policing. London: Routledge

McCarthy, D, J. (2013) 'Gendering ‘Soft’ Policing: Female Cops, Multi-Agency Working, and the Fragilities of Police Culture/s’Policing and Society, 23(2): 262-278.

McGuire, M. (2013) 'Technomia and the Biochemical Citizen', Deviance et Societe, 3.

McGuire, M. (2013) 'Cybercrime - A Review of the Evidence', HOS/11/047. Home Office.

McGuire, M. (2013) 'Counting the Cost of E-Crime', British Retail Consortium, Research Report. 

Millie, A., and Bullock, K. (2013) 'Policing in a Time of Contraction and Constraint: Re-imagining the Role and Function of Contemporary Policing'Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 133-142. 

Sutherland, A., Brunton-Smith, I., and Jackson, J. (2013) ‘Collective efficacy and violence in London’British Journal of Criminology, 53(6): 1050-1074.


Brunton-Smith, I., and Jackson, J. (2012) ‘Chapter 2 - Urban Fear and its Roots in Place’ in Ceccato, V. (ed) Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear. Springer.

Bullock, K., and Leeney, D. (2012) Public Concern about Organised CrimeCrime Prevention and Community Safety. 14(4): 287-292.

Bullock, K., and Johnson, P. (2012) The Impact of the Human Rights Act on the Police Service in England and WalesBritish Journal of Criminology. 52(3): 630-650.

McGuire, M. (2012) Technology, Crime and Justice. London: Taylor-Francis.

McGuire, M. (2012) 'Organised Crime in the Digital Age (II)', John Grieve Centre for Policing/Detica BAE.

Millie, A., and Bullock, K. (2012) Re-imagining policing post-austerity. British Academy Review, 19: 16-18.


Brunton-Smith, I., and Sturgis, P. (2011) ‘Do neighborhoods generate fear of crime?: An empirical test using the British Crime Survey’Criminology, 49(2): 331-369.

Brunton-Smith, I. (2011) ‘Untangling the relationship between fear of crime and perceived disorder: Evidence from a longitudinal study of young people in England and Wales’British Journal of Criminology, 51(6): 885-899.

Bullock, K. (2011) Responding to Anti-social Behaviour: Analysis, Interventions and the Transfer of KnowledgeCrime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal. 13(1): 1-15.

Bullock, K. (2011) The Construction and Interpretation of Risk Technologies in Contemporary Probation Practice.  British Journal of Criminology. 51(1): 120-135.

Garland J., and Bilby, C. (2011) ''What Next, Dwarves?': Images of Police Culture in Life on Mars'Crime, Media, Culture, 7(2): 115-132.

McCarthy, D, J. (2011) 'Classing Early Intervention: Social Class, Occupational Moralities and Criminalization'Critical Social Policy, 31(4): 495-516.

McGuire, M. (2011) 'Organised Crime in the Digital Age (I)', John Grieve Centre for Policing/Detica BAE.

McGuire, M. (2011) 'Abnormal Law: Teratology as a Logic of Criminalisation', in The Structure of Criminal Wrongs, Volume II.

Treadwell J., and Garland J. (2011) ‘Masculinity, marginalisation and violence: A case study of the English Defence League’The British Journal of Criminology, 51(4): 621-634.


Brunton-Smith, I., Sindall, K., and Tarling, R. (2010) ‘The Effect of Demographic Make-up on Perceptions of Antisocial Behaviour in London as Measured by the British Crime Survey and 2008 Place Survey’. Government Office for London.

Bullock, K., Clarke, R., and Tilley, N. (2010) Situational Prevention of Organised Crime. Cullompton: Willan.

Bullock, K. (2010) Enforcing Financial Penalties: The Case of Confiscation OrdersThe Howard Journal. 49(4): 328-339.

Bullock, K., and Ekblom, P. (2010) Richness, Retrievability and Reliability – Issues in a Working Knowledge Base for Good Practice in Crime Prevention, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 16(1): 29-47.

Bullock, K. (2010) The Confiscation InvestigationPolicing: An International Journal of Policy and Practice. 4(1): 7-14.

Bullock, K. (2010) Improving Accessibility and Accountability – Neighbourhood Policing and the Policing Pledge, Safer Communities: International Journal of Community Safety. 9(1): 10-19.

Bullock, K. (2010) Generating and Using Community Intelligence: The Case of Neighbourhood PolicingThe International Journal of Police Science and Management. 12(1): 1-11.

Bullock, K., Sarre, S., Tarling, R., and Wilkinson, M. (2010) An Implementation Study of the delivery of Domestic Abuse Programmes in Probation Areas and Her Majesty’s Prison Service. Ministry of Justice Research Series 15/10. London: Ministry of Justice.

Chakraborti N., and Garland J. (2012) 'Reconceptualizing hate crime victimization through the lens of vulnerability and 'difference''. Theoretical Criminology, 16(4): 499-514. 

Garland J. (2012) 'Difficulties in defining hate crime victimization'International Review of Victimology, 18(1): 25-37.

Garland J., and Chakraborti N. (2012) 'Divided by a common concept? Assessing the implications of different conceptualizations of hate crime in the European Union'European Journal of Criminology, 9(1): 38-51.

Garland J., and Treadwell J. (2012) 'The New Politics of Hate? An Assessment of the Appeal of the English Defence League Amongst Disadvantaged White Working Class Communities in England'Journal of Hate Studies, 10(1): 123-141.

Garland J. (2010) '‘It’s a Mosher Just Been Banged for No Reason’: Assessing the Victimisation of Goths and the Boundaries of Hate Crime'International Review of Victimology, 17(2): 159-177.

McCarthy, D, J. (2010) 'Self-Governance or Professionalized Paternalism? The Police, Contractual Injunctions, and the Management of Deviant Populations'The British Journal of Criminology, 50(5): 896-913.

McGuire, M. (2010) 'Sharpes Monsters and the English Law', Journal of Social and Legal Studies.

McGuire, M. (2010) 'Online Surveillance and Personal Freedom' in Jewkes, Y., and Yar, M. The Handbook of Internet Crime. Willan.

Rowe M., and Garland J. (2012) 'Paying the price? Why football still has a problem: Mike Rowe and Jon Garland assess the ongoing presence of racism in football'Criminal Justice Matters, 88(1): 30-31.


Brunton-Smith, I., and Allen, J. (2009) ‘Chapter 3 - Measuring Crime’ In M. Bulmer, J. Gibbs and L. Hyman (eds) Social Measurement through Social Surveys: an Applied Approach, Ashgate.

Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2009) Born to Fail? Policing, Reform and Neighbourhood Problem-SolvingThe Police Journal. 83(2): 117-130.

Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2009) Police Reform: the Prospects for Evidence Based Policing and Crime ReductionPolicing: An International Journal of policy and Practice. 381-387.

Bullock, K., Chowdhury, R., and Hollings, P. (2009) Public Concerns about Organised Crime. Home Office Research Report 16. London: Home Office.

Bullock, K., Mann, D., Street, R., and Coxon, C. (2009) Examining attrition in confiscating the proceeds of crime. Home Office Research Report 17. London: Home Office.

Chakraborti N., and Garland J. (2009) Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses. London: Sage.

McCarthy, D, J. (2009) Policing and the Poetics of Everyday Life (Review), Policing and Society, 19(4): 493-4.


Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2008) Understanding and Tackling Gang ViolenceCrime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal.  10(1): 36-47.

Bullock, K., and Tilley, N. (2008) 'Problem-oriented Policing', in A. Wakefield, A Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage.

McGuire, M. (2008) Hypercrime: The New Geometry of Harm. Routledge-Cavendish.